History of Architecture 2. (Antiquity) - BMEEPETA201
Lecturer. Tamás MEZŐS
Responsible: Tamás MEZŐS
Educational methods: lectures and practicals; credits 3
Form of exam: midterm
The individual areas are discussed according to the similar logical structure. The history of the development of architecture. Before discussing the evolution of architecture, first, a brief summary will be given about the main historical events, and the visual arts characteristic of the period. After discussing the applied construction materials and structures, the architectural mindset of the age will be introduced through presenting the chronological order of the individual building types according to functional groups, via the functional requirements imposed on the building type, and according to the architectural answers given to these questions. Many times our knowledge is insufficient, which renders it difficult to logically implement the thematic discussion. Therefore, methodological discussion of the larger settlements, or the towns of Mesopotamia and partly Egypt proves to be problematic, because limited archeological knowledge and the durability of the applied construction materials made it impossible to research the community structure context of the town. However, in terms of the river cultures, we have the possibility to give an account on sacral, residential house and palace architecture, through which it can be verified that the development of space structures in architecture history has already started in 3000 B.C. – as opposed to the present assumptions of historiography and architecture theory, that link the establishment of space structures with Roman architecture. In terms of Egyptian architecture the emphasis is on the development of monumental stone architecture, where sepulchral and sacral architecture are prominent. We also discuss the unique works of residential houses and palace architecture in detail, but according to the possibilities. It stems from the basically urban character of the Hellene and Roman civilization, that, in terms of its architecture, the emphasis has to be put on introducing the historical development of settlement, urban residential houses, and the examples of sacral architecture in the city of Rome. One can observe a particularly interesting development process when analyzing the Hellenistic Greek, the Western Greek, the Etruscan and the urban Roman church architecture. Examining the constructional differences arising from the location of the churches (sanctuaries built in the nature or in the city) sheds light on the early, deliberate solutions of space formation as well. It is also possible to discuss the different types of the architecture of public buildings. The public buildings of the Hellenic architecture, the space formation of the buleuterions and the eclasiasterions interconnected with theaters, or for example the analysis of the Roman theater and the town theater built on natural substructure. It proves to be an interesting comparison to discuss different space formations of identical building types – e.g. the theater – in the Hellenic and Roman architecture. The main achievement of Roman architecture is doubtlessly the imperial public bath complex. The main achievement of Roman architecture is doubtlessly the imperial public bath complex. Structurally connecting the space structure determined by the bound bath road and other areas providing free-time activities offers a decisive experience from the point of view of understanding architectural thinking.